BIBFRAME 2.0, BIBCAT, and DP.LA

August 17th 2016
Jeremy Nelson

The promise and potential of Library Linked Data using BIBFRAME

Bibliographic representation and management of library collections

Topics

  • Quick intro to Linked Data & BIBFRAME
  • Creating BIBFRAME Applications with RDF Framework & BIBCAT
  • Building a DP.LA Service Hub with BIBCAT

Quick intro to Linked Data & BIBFRAME

Libraries and cultural heritage organizations are shifting from MARC21 and XML metadata standards to Linked-Data vocabularies. Library Linked Data is an international effort to bring machine-readable data to the web. Based on RDF (Resource Description Framework) graphs, Library Linked Data is made up a series of statements, called triples, that take the form of subject - predicate - object.

Linked Data is about representing information in RDF Triples i.e. subject-predicate-object. like BIBFRAME and Schema.org. RDA and MARC can also be reformulated into Linked Data triples as well.

IRIs the "Link" in Linked Data

The power of linked data is deceptively simple and is based on the idea behind the common URL, the uniform resource locator, used by most people everyday when using the web. Internationalized Resource Identifier or IRI extend the concept of URL to use IRI as a global identifier and unlike a URL, an IRI can contain unicode characters from other non-European languages. An IRI serves as the critical linking structure between local and global information sources. NOTE an IRI doesn't have to exist to be useful, only that is uniquely identifiable like an URL.

What is a Graph?

A graph data structure is made up nodes (also known as vertices or points) with connections between the nodes called edges or directed edges (also referred to as arcs or lines)

Graphs are used to describe transportation systems, computer networks, and social relationships. Graphs easily support heterogeneous environments with different vocabularies that can scale to billions (if not trillions) of nodes and edges.


RDF Graphs

Linked Data in libraries is constructed using Resource Description Framework (RDF) graphs, a type of directed graphs, where the nodes are made up of either IRI (international resource indicator i.e. URLs or URIs), blank nodes (a type of identifier placeholder in a RDF graph), or literal values. Originating with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications, RDF graphs are built using three element statements called triples that model relationships between resources, IRIs, and descriptive information.

In a RDF triple, the first element is called a subject and represents a resource with the second element, the predicate, describing an aspect that connects to the third element, an object made up a value. One or more triples make up a RDF graph.

The big shift for libraries:

Managing records (MARC) to managing triples (BIBFRAME, Schema.org)



Subjects

Subjects must be either an IRI or a blank node and represents the resource or entity

Predicates

A relationship between the subject and object is a predicate, also called a property. A predicate can only be an IRI.

Objects

Object must be either an IRI, blank node, or literal value.

BIBFRAME

BIBFRAME 1.0

The BIBFRAME Initiative was started by the Library of Congress in 2011 with the intent to "integrate with and engage in the wider information community and still serve the very specific needs of libraries."1

The first version of BIBFRAME was released in 2014 and is still available at bibframe.org.

BIBFRAME 2.0


source: https://www.loc.gov/bibframe/docs/bibframe2-model.html

Work

A BIBFRAME Work "reflects the conceptual essence of the cataloged resource: authors, languages, and what it is about (subjects)" and is the most abstract and general resource.

Instance

A BIBFRAME Instance "reflects information such as its publisher, place and date of publication, and format" and embodies a Work in one or more descriptive and less abstract resources.

Item

A BIBFRAME Item "reflects information such as its location (physical or virtual), shelf mark, and barcode" of one or more Instances and represents the physical or actual digital object as a resource.


Work

RDF Class

The BIBFRAME Work is related to the FRBR concept of a Work but unlike FRBR, a BIBFRAME Work is actually a sub-class of a more general or abstract class derived from a RDFS Resource, making BIBFRAME a linked-data vocabulary.

RDF Properties

A BIBFRAME Work has the following properties:

RDF Sub Classes

The BIBFRAME Work is also the parent class for a number of different types of Works listed below:

RDF Graph Examples (turtle formated)

Text

Resource intended to be perceived visually and understood through the use of language in written or spoken form.
<https://lccn.loc.gov/12032828> a bf:Text ;
    bf:title [ a bf:WorkTitle ;
            bf:mainTitle "The pioneer Quakers" ] ;
    relator:aut  <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/nr89010376> .


<http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/nr89010376> rdfs:label "Richard Hallowell" .
        

Audio

Resources expressed in an audible form, including music or other sounds.
<https://lccn.loc.gov/85751262> a bf:Audio ;
    bf:musicMedium [ a bf:MusicMedium ;
            rdfs:label "Libretto" ],
        [ a bf:MusicMedium ;
            rdfs:label "Oratorio"@en ] ;
    bf:title [ a bf:WorkTitle ;
            bf:mainTitle "Messiah"@en ] ;
    bf:voice [ a bf:MusicVoice ;
            rdfs:label "mixed"@en ] ;
    relator:cmp <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79105494> .

<http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79105494> rdfs:label "George Frideric Handel" .
        
        

Dataset

Data encoded in a defined structure. Includes numeric data, environmental data,etc., used by applications software to calculate averages, correlations, etc., or to produce models, etc., but not normally displayed in its raw form.
<http://bibcat.org/Work/84330c68-2d7d-11e6-8b16-ac87a3129ce6> a bf:Dataset ;
    bf:content <http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?q=religion&d=POP&f=tableCode%3a28%3brefYear%3a2010&c=2,3,6,8,10,12,14,15,16&s=_countryEnglishNameOrderBy:asc,refYear:desc,areaCode:asc&v=1> ;
    bf:title [ a bf:WorkTitle ;
            rdfs:label "Population by religion, sex and urban/rural residence for 2011" ] ;
    relator:cre <http://data.un.org/> .
        

MovingImage

Images intended to be perceived as moving, including motion pictures (using liveaction and/or animation), video recordings of performances, events,etc.
<http://tiger.coloradocollege.edu/record=b2348805> a bf:MovingImage ;
    bf:title [ a bf:WorkTitle ;
            rdfs:label "The ten commandments" ] ;
    relator:act <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Baxter>,
        <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlton_Heston>,
        <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yul_Brynner> ;
    relator:drt <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80073529> ;
    schema:url <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Ten_Commandments_(1956_film)> .

<http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80073529> a bf:Person ;
    rdfs:label "Cecil B. DeMille" .
        


Instance

RDF Class

Like a BIBFRAME Work, a BIBFRAME Instance is a RDF Resource subclass. A BIBFRAME Instance combines characteristics of both a FRBR Expression and Manifestation.

RDF Properties

A BIBFRAME Instance has the following properties:

RDF Sub Classes

The BIBFRAME Instance is also the parent class for a number of different types of Instances listed below:

RDF Graph Examples

Print Instance

<http://bibcat.org/Instance/b96aa86c-2cfa-11e6-8471-005056c00008> a bf:Instance,
        bf:Print ;
    bf:instanceOf <https://lccn.loc.gov/12032828> ;
    bf:copyrightDate 1887 ;
    bf:provisionActivity [ a bf:Publication ;
            relator:pbl <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n88002745> ] .

<http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n88002745> a bf:Organization ;
    rdfs:label "Houghton, Mifflin and Company" .
        

Audio Instance

BIBFRAME 2.0 does not currently have an audio instance type, so to represent an audio instance, the more general BIBFRAME Instance class is used.

<http://bibcat.org/Instance/058767d0-2d76-11e6-b2d3-ac87a3129ce6> a bf:Instance ;
    bf:carrier [ a bf:Carrier ;
            rdf:value "audio disc" ] ;
    bf:dimensions "12 in." ;
    bf:extent [ a bf:Extent ;
            rdf:value "3 sound discs" ] ;
    bf:instanceOf <https://lccn.loc.gov/85751262> ;
    bf:soundCharacteristic [ a bf:PlayingSpeed ;
            rdf:value "33 1/3 rpm" ] . 
        

Dataset Electronic Instances

In this example, we will create two instances of our United Nations BIBFRAME Dataset, one for the XML format and the other for the CSV format.

<http://bibcat.org/Instance/ce342a40-2d7d-11e6-927b-ac87a3129ce6> a bf:Electronic ;
    bf:instanceOf <http://bibcat.org/Work/84330c68-2d7d-11e6-8b16-ac87a3129ce6>
    bf:digitalCharacteristic [ a bf:FileType ;
            rdf:value "XML" ],
        [ a bf:EncodingFormat ;
            rdf:value "application/xml" ],
        [ a bf:FileSize ;
            rdf:value "937 KB" ];
    rdfs:label "XML download of Population by religion, sex, and urban/rural residence for 2011" .

<http://bibcat.org/Instance/e68986ec-2db6-11e6-9e8a-005056c00008> a bf:Electronic ;
    rdfs:label "CSV download of Population by religion, sex, and urban/rural residence for 2011" ;
    bf:digitalCharacteristic [ a bf:EncodingFormat ;
            rdf:value "text/csv" ],
        [ a bf:FileType,
            rdf:value "Comma separated values" ],
        [ a bf:FileSize,
            rdf:value "213 KB" ];
    bf:instanceOf <http://bibcat.org/Work/84330c68-2d7d-11e6-8b16-ac87a3129ce6> .

        

Film/DVD Instance

<http://bibcat.org/Instance/10e18ff4-2dba-11e6-9a7b-005056c00008> a bf:Instance ;
    bf:carrier [ a bf:Carrier ;
            rdf:value "videodisc" ] ;
    bf:instanceOf <http://tiger.coloradocollege.edu/record=b2348805> ;
    bf:note [ a bf:Note ;
            rdfs:label "Filmed in Egypt and the Sinai with one of the biggest sets ever constructed for a motion picture, this version tells the story of the life of Moses. Once favored in the Pharaoh's bousehold, Moses turned his back on a privileged life to lead his people to freedom" ;
            bf:noteType "summary" ] ;
    bf:videoCharacteristic [ a bf:VideoFormat ;
            rdf:value "DVD NTSC Region 1, widescreen enhanced for 16:0 TVs" ] .
        


Item

RDF Class

The BIBFRAME Item class is a single example of a BIBFRAME Instance and includes specific identification and inventory management properties like barcode and call number.

RDF Properties

A BIBFRAME Item has the following properties:

RDF Graph Examples

<http://bibcat.org/acd63548-2e8c-11e6-8383-005056c00008> a bf:Item ;
    bf:heldBy <http://www-lib.uwyo.edu/> ;
    bf:itemOf <http://bibcat.org/Instance/b96aa86c-2cfa-11e6-8471-005056c00008> ;
    bf:shelfMark [ a bf:ShelfMarkLcc ;
            rdf:value "BX7636 .H3" ] ;
    bf:subLocation [ a bf:Sublocation ;
            rdf:value "Coe Library Stacks - Level 1"@en ] .
        

Bootstrapping BIBFRAME Applications with RDF Framework & BIBCAT

Creating RDF for managing RDF Library-Linked data*not original

Source MARC21 Record

To illustrate the tools for converting MARC 21 to BIBFRAME, we will use a recent acquisition for Colorado College, the A hobbit, a wardrobe, and a great war : how J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis rediscovered faith, friendship, and heroism in the cataclysm of 1914-1918 .

MARC 21 Record

=LDR  02781cam  2200553 i 4500
=001  910568768
=003  OCoLC
=005  20160606121947.0
=008  150114s2015\\\\tnuaf\\\\b\\\\001\0\eng\d
=010  \\$a2015930874
=020  \\$a9780718021764$q(hbk.)
=020  \\$a0718021762$q(hbk.)
=035  \\$a(OCoLC)910568768$z(OCoLC)896860620
=040  \\$aTOH$beng$erda$cTOH$dDLC$dBDX$dBTCTA$dTNH$dYDXCP$dBKL$dON8$dCLE$dUOK$dGRN$dVTL$dZCU$dIQU$dMUU$dLNT$dOCLCF$dCOD$dLMR$dOCLCQ$dCOC
=042  \\$alccopycat
=043  \\$ae-uk-en
=049  \\$aCOCA
=050  00$aPR6039.O32$bZ6916 2015
=050  00$aPR6039.O32$bZ6916 2015
=100  1\$aLoconte, Joe,$d1961-$eauthor.
=245  12$aA hobbit, a wardrobe, and a great war :$bhow J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis rediscovered faith, friendship, and heroism in the cataclysm of 1914-1918 /$cJoseph Loconte.
=264  \1$aNashville, Tennessee :$bNelson Books, an imprint of Thomas Nelson,$c[2015]
=300  \\$axix, 235 pages, 8 unnumbered pages of plates :$billustrations ;$c22 cm.
=336  \\$atext$btxt$2rdacontent.
=337  \\$aunmediated$bn$2rdamedia.
=338  \\$avolume$bnc$2rdacarrier.
=504  \\$aIncludes bibliographical references (pages 203-226) and index.
=505  0\$aThe funeral of a great myth -- The last battle -- In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit -- The lion, the witch, and the war -- The land of shadow -- That hideous strength -- Conclusion: The Return of the King.
=520  \\$a"The untold story of how the First World War shaped the lives, faith, and writings of J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis"--Amazon.com.
=600  10$aTolkien, J. R. R.$q(John Ronald Reuel),$d1892-1973$xCriticism and interpretation.
=600  10$aTolkien, J. R. R.$q(John Ronald Reuel),$d1892-1973$xReligion.
=600  10$aLewis, C. S.$q(Clive Staples),$d1898-1963$xCriticism and interpretation.
=600  10$aLewis, C. S.$q(Clive Staples),$d1898-1963$xReligion.
=650  \0$aWorld War, 1914-1918.
=650  \0$aLiterature and society$zEngland$xHistory$y20th century.
=655  \7$aCriticism, interpretation, etc.
=655  \7$aHistory.
=600  17$aLewis, C. S.$q(Clive Staples),$d1898-1963.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst00029827.
=600  17$aTolkien, J. R. R.$q(John Ronald Reuel),$d1892-1973.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst00030031.
=611  27$aWorld War (1914-1918)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01180746.
=648  \7$a1900 - 1999$2fast.
=650  \7$aLiterature and society.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01000096.
=650  \7$aReligion.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01093763.
=651  \7$aEngland.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01219920.
=907  \\$a.b24306101
=902  \\$a160606
=999  \\$b1$c160606$dm$ea$fn$g2
=994  \\$atbp
=945  \\$aPR6039.O32$bZ6916 2015$g1$i33027006635050$j0$ltbnew$h0$oc$p$0.00$q $r-$s-$t1$u0$v0$w0$x0$y.i23751198$z160606

        

RDF Framework MARC-to-BIBFRAME 2.0

The RDF Framework is a critical component of the open-source Catalog Pull Platform. Because of the very recent release of BIBFRAME 2.0 in April of 2016, the tools for converting MARC records to the BIBFRAME classes has just started. The first iteration of a linked-data tool produces the following BIBFRAME 2.0 graphs with minimal mappings.

A key advantage of the RDF Framework is that most definitions, mappings, and other tasks are structured in RDF, so learning the basics of RDF and Linked Data will enable staff to use the same technologies to build the tools as well as metadata manipulation need for cataloging and other technical services workflows.

RDF BIBFRAME 2.0 Graph

<http://catalog.coloradocollege.edu/fbca3f82-63d2-11e6-90c8-005056c00008> a bf:Instance ;
    bf:bookFormat [ a bf:BookFormat ;
            rdf:value "(hbk.)" ] ;
        

Our instance is created a Colorado College Catalog URL with a RDF class of BIBFRAME Instance. The bookFormat property is set with a blank node and is mapped in the kds-bibcat-marc-ingestion.ttl turtle file

    bf:carrier <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/carriers/nc>
    bf:classification [ a bf:ClassificationLcc ;
            rdf:value "PR6039.O32 Z6916 2015" ] ;
    bf:dimensions "22 cm." ;
    bf:extent [ a bf:Extent ;
        rdf:value "xix, 235 pages, 8 unnumbered pages of plates :" ] ;
    

The BIBFRAME Carrier is performed and linked to the Library of Congress ontology available at http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/carriers/. The Library of Congress classification number is stored in a blank node with a RDF class of ClassificationLcc.

The BIBFRAME extent stores the page number and other units information in a blank node.

    bf:identifiedBy [ a bf:Isbn ;
            rdf:value "0718021762",
                "9780718021764" ] ;
    bf:instanceOf [ a bf:Work ;
            bf:originDate "2015" ] ;
        

This item is identified by two ISBN numbers that are stored in a blank node for the BF Instance's bf:identifiedBy property. The ISBN identifiers are used for de-duplicating Instances in the catalog. For metadata (like bf:originDate) associated with a BIBFRAME Work is stored in a temporary blank node. A separate generation process from the ingester is used to generate Work IRI for Instances.

    bf:subject [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "World War, 1914-1918." ],
        [ a bf:Person ;
            rdf:value "Lewis, C. S. 1898-1963 Criticism and interpretation." ],
        [ a bf:Person ;
            rdf:value "Lewis, C. S. 1898-1963 Religion." ],
        [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "Literature and society England" ],
        [ a bf:Person ;
            rdf:value "Tolkien, J. R. R. 1892-1973 Criticism and interpretation." ],
        [ a bf:Person ;
            rdf:value "Tolkien, J. R. R. 1892-1973 Religion." ] ;
    

The BIBFRAME subjects are stored as blank nodes that with the values of various 600 and 650 MARC subfields. We are a developing a Subject Linker that takes these values and does a look-up on a LOC Authority triplestore to match the corresponding LOC IRI at http://id.loc.gov

    bf:summary [ a bf:Summary ;
            rdf:value ""The untold story of how the First World War shaped the lives, faith, and writings of J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis"--Amazon.com." ] ;
    bf:tableOfContents [ a bf:TableOfContents ;
            rdf:value "The funeral of a great myth -- The last battle -- In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit -- The lion, the witch, and the war -- The land of shadow -- That hideous strength -- Conclusion: The Return of the King." ] ;
    
The BIBFRAME summary and tableOfContents properties of the Instance are mapped from MARC 21 5XX fields.
    bf:title [ a bf:InstanceTitle ;
            bf:mainTitle "A hobbit, a wardrobe, and a great war :" ;
            bf:subtitle "how J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis rediscovered faith, friendship, and heroism in the cataclysm of 1914-1918 /" ] ;
    relators:aut [ a bf:Person ;
            schema:name "Loconte, Joe," ] .    
        
The BIBFRAME InstanceTitle and the author relationships store data in MARC 100 and 245 fields.
<http://catalog.coloradocollege.edu/fde0cb48-63d2-11e6-8296-005056c00008> a bf:Item ;
    bf:barcode [ a bf:Barcode ;
            rdf:value "33027006635050" ] ;
    bf:generationProcess [ a bf:GenerationProcess ;
            bf:generationDate "2016-08-16T17:00:53.646383" ;
            rdf:value "Generated by BIBCAT version 1.1.0 from KnowledgeLinks.io"@en ] ;
    bf:heldBy <http://www.coloradocollege.edu/> ;
    bf:identifiedBy [ a bf:Local ;
            rdf:value ".i23751198" ] ;
    bf:itemOf <http://catalog.coloradocollege.edu/fbca3f82-63d2-11e6-90c8-005056c00008> .
        

The BIBCAT Item should have additional properties that are specific to your ILS. In this case, a custom Turtle Rules file is being developed for extracting specific information to store in this BIBFRAME Item like barcode number and the item number from Colorado College's legacy ILS.


Building a DP.LA Service Hub with BIBCAT

Challenge

How do you create a service hub for aggregating different metadata vocabularies and formats from Libraries, Museums, and other cultural heritage organizations into an appropriate data feed for harvesting by Digital Public Library of America (DP.LA)?

Design & First Build Iteration

  • Built upon work initially contracted by the Library of Congress
  • Pre-existing turtle RDF workflows for MARC21 records to BIBFRAME 2.0 entities already in development
  • Easier to build Metadata format/file format to BIBFRAME and then only need one BIBFRAME to to output OMH XML

Colorado College's MODS XML

<mods:mods xmlns:mods="http://www.loc.gov/mods/v3">
  <mods:abstract>
   The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of corporate political contributions on the allocation of U.S subsides. This is achieved by correlating how much money a corporation spends on political investments in the form of Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions and lobbying, and how much money they receive back in the form of government monetary subsides. Using regression analysis, this study finds that for every one dollar a corporation spends on PAC contributions, there is an expected return of $4.37 dollars from the government in some form of subsidy. For every one dollar spent on lobbying, this study finds an expected return of $0.44 dollars from the government. The size and industry of the firm and the type of industry are statistically significant determinants of subsidy allocation. An ethical analysis is also performed in this thesis, and the results suggest ethically questionable practices involving corporate political action with need for reform.
  </mods:abstract>
  <mods:note type="admin">The author has given permission for this work to be deposited in the Digital Archive of Colorado College.</mods:note>
  <mods:note type="admin">Colorado College Honor Code upheld.</mods:note>
  <mods:note type="thesis">Senior Thesis -- Colorado College</mods:note>
  <mods:note displayLabel="Degree Name" type="thesis">Bachelor of Arts</mods:note>
  <mods:note displayLabel="Degree Type" type="thesis">bachelor</mods:note>
  <mods:note type="bibliography">Includes bibliographical references.</mods:note>
  <mods:typeOfResource>text</mods:typeOfResource>
  <mods:genre authority="marcgt">thesis</mods:genre>
  <mods:accessCondition type="useAndReproduction">Copyright restrictions apply.</mods:accessCondition>
  <mods:physicalDescription>
    <mods:extent>48 pages</mods:extent>
    <mods:digitalOrigin>born digital</mods:digitalOrigin>
  </mods:physicalDescription>
  <mods:name type="personal">
    <mods:role>
      <mods:roleTerm authority="marcrelator" type="text">creator</mods:roleTerm>
    </mods:role>
    <mods:namePart>Newby, Seth</mods:namePart>
  </mods:name>
  <mods:name type="personal">
    <mods:role>
      <mods:roleTerm authority="marcrelator" type="text">thesis advisor</mods:roleTerm>
    </mods:role>
    <mods:namePart>Fenn, Aju</mods:namePart>
  </mods:name>
  <mods:name type="personal">
    <mods:role>
      <mods:roleTerm authority="marcrelator" type="text">thesis advisor</mods:roleTerm>
    </mods:role>
    <mods:namePart />
  </mods:name>
  <mods:name type="corporate">
    <mods:role>
      <mods:roleTerm authority="marcrt" type="text">sponsor</mods:roleTerm>
    </mods:role>
    <mods:namePart>Department of Economics and Business</mods:namePart>
  </mods:name>
  <mods:name type="corporate">
    <mods:namePart>Colorado College</mods:namePart>
    <mods:role>
      <mods:roleTerm authority="marcrt" type="text">degree grantor</mods:roleTerm>
    </mods:role>
  </mods:name>
  <mods:subject>
    <mods:topic>PAC contributions</mods:topic>
  </mods:subject>
  <mods:subject>
    <mods:topic>Lobbying</mods:topic>
  </mods:subject>
  <mods:subject>
    <mods:topic>Subsidy Allocation</mods:topic>
  </mods:subject>
  <mods:subject>
    <mods:topic>Government Kickbacks</mods:topic>
  </mods:subject>
  <mods:subject>
    <mods:topic>Corporate Political Action</mods:topic>
  </mods:subject>
  <mods:subject>
    <mods:topic>Influence</mods:topic>
  </mods:subject>
  <mods:subject>
    <mods:topic>Ethics of Corporate Political Action</mods:topic>
  </mods:subject>
  <mods:subject>
    <mods:topic>Subsidies</mods:topic>
  </mods:subject>
  <mods:titleInfo>
    <mods:title>Corporate Influence on Monetary Government Outcomes</mods:title>
  </mods:titleInfo>
  <mods:originInfo>
    <mods:publisher>Colorado College</mods:publisher>
    <mods:dateIssued keyDate="yes">2016-05</mods:dateIssued>
    <mods:dateCreated>2016-05</mods:dateCreated>
    <mods:place>
      <mods:placeTerm>Colorado Springs,
                  Colorado
     </mods:placeTerm>
    </mods:place>
  </mods:originInfo>
  <mods:language>
    <mods:languageTerm>English</mods:languageTerm>
  </mods:language>
  <mods:location>
    <mods:url usage="primary display">https://digitalcc.coloradocollege.edu/islandora/objects/coccc:17715</mods:url>
  </mods:location>
</mods:mods>
        
bc:mods-creator a kds:PropertyLinker;
    kds:srcPropXpath "mods:name[@type='personal']/mods:role[mods:roleTerm='creator']/../mods:namePart";
    kds:destClassUri bf:Person;
    kds:destPropUri schema:alternativeName;
    kds:hasIndividualNodes "true" ;
    kds:linkedRange relators:cre;
    kds:linkedClass bf:Instance .

bc:mods-Sponsor a kds:PropertyLinker;
    kds:srcPropXpath "mods:name/mods:role[mods:roleTerm='sponsor']/../mods:namePart";
    kds:destPropUri rdfs:label ;
    kds:destClassUri bf:Organization ;
    kds:destAdditionalPropUris [ bf:partOf  ] ;
    kds:linkedRange relators:spn ;
kds:linkedClass bf:Instance .

bc:bf-Organization a kds:PropertyLinker;
    kds:destPropUri [ bf:heldBy  ] ;
kds:destClassUri bf:Item .
        

The MODS to BIBFRAME ingester uses a RDF-based rule-set for transforming MODS XML into BIBFRAME 2.0 Linked Data. This rule-set is written in the RDF Turtle serialization with the following rules coming from two sources; the first in the kds-bibcat-dc-ingestion.ttl and the second for Colorado College specific rules for the digital repository in the cc-mods.ttl

BIBFRAME 2.0 RDF Graphs

<http://catalog.coloradocollege.edu/d3796712-642d-11e6-8522-005056c00008> a bf:Item ;
    bf:electronicLocation <https://digitalcc.coloradocollege.edu/islandora/objects/coccc:17715> ;
    bf:generationProcess [ a bf:GenerationProcess ;
            bf:generationDate "2016-08-17T03:51:06.607364" ;
            rdf:value "Generated by BIBCAT version 1.1.0 from KnowledgeLinks.io"@en ] ;
    bf:heldBy <http://www.coloradocollege.edu>
    bf:itemOf <http://catalog.coloradocollege.edu/d331716c-642d-11e6-bdd3-005056c00008> .

<http://catalog.coloradocollege.edu/d331716c-642d-11e6-bdd3-005056c00008> a bf:Instance ;
    bf:dissertation [ a bf:Dissertation ;
            bf:degree "Bachelor of Arts" ;
            bf:grantingInstitution <http://www.coloradocollege.edu/> ] ;
    bf:extent [ a bf:Extent ;
            rdf:value "48 pages" ] ;
    bf:generationProcess [ a bf:GenerationProcess ;
            bf:generationDate "2016-08-17T03:51:06.562855" ;
            rdf:value "Generated by BIBCAT version 1.1.0 from KnowledgeLinks.io"@en ] ;
    bf:genreFrom [ a bf:GenreForm ;
            rdf:value "thesis" ] ;
    bf:instanceOf [ a bf:Text,
                "text" ] ;
    bf:note [ a bf:Note ;
            bf:noteType "admin"@en ;
            rdf:value "Colorado College Honor Code upheld." ],
        [ a bf:Note ;
            bf:noteType "admin"@en ;
            rdf:value "The author has given permission for this work to be deposited in the Digital Archive of Colorado College." ] ;
    bf:summary [ a bf:Summary ;
            rdf:value """
   The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of corporate political contributions on the allocation of U.S subsides. This is achieved by correlating how much money a corporation spends on political investments in the form of Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions and lobbying, and how much money they receive back in the form of government monetary subsides. Using regression analysis, this study finds that for every one dollar a corporation spends on PAC contributions, there is an expected return of $4.37 dollars from the government in some form of subsidy. For every one dollar spent on lobbying, this study finds an expected return of $0.44 dollars from the government. The size and industry of the firm and the type of industry are statistically significant determinants of subsidy allocation. An ethical analysis is also performed in this thesis, and the results suggest ethically questionable practices involving corporate political action with need for reform.
  """ ] ;
    bf:title [ a bf:InstanceTitle ;
            bf:mainTitle "Corporate Influence on Monetary Government Outcomes" ] ;
    relators:cre <http://catalog.coloradocollege.edu/d41b8f48-642d-11e6-8bbc-005056c00008> ;
    relators:ths <http://catalog.coloradocollege.edu/d4b5db5e-642d-11e6-bb42-005056c00008> .

<http://catalog.coloradocollege.edu/d41b8f48-642d-11e6-8bbc-005056c00008> a bf:Person ;
    schema:name "Newby, Seth" .

<http://catalog.coloradocollege.edu/d4b5db5e-642d-11e6-bb42-005056c00008> a bf:Person ;
    schema:name "Fenn, Aju" .

<http://www.coloradocollege.edu/> a bf:Organization ;
    rdfs:label "Colorado College" .
   

Denver Public Library's RDF Dublin Core XML

The source for this digital object in the Denver Public Library's Digital Collections.

<rdf:Description xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" 
  xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" 
about="http://cdm16079.contentdm.oclc.org:80/cdm/ref/collection/p15330coll22/id/24933">
    <dc:title>Sopris statue
</dc:title>
    <dc:creator />
    <dc:subject>City Park (Denver, Colo.)--1930-1950.; Denver (Colo.)--1930-1950.; Monuments & memorials--Colorado--Denver--1930-1950.; Sculpture--Colorado--Denver--1930-1950.; Sopris, Elizabeth Allen--Monuments.</dc:subject>
    <dc:description>A view of the Sopris statue at City Park in Denver, Colorado. The statue is of a young boy that stands on a sundial. A cement bench surrounds the statue and a man made pool is below it. The City Park Pavilion is behind the statue.
Album is indexed.; Album page 1 includes X-20083 to X-20090 on verso page 2 X-20091 to X-20099.; Formerly F46648; Photo edges are cropped.; Title inked below photoprint.; Written above photo is "2", and below "In memory of Elizabeth Allen Sopris a gift to Denver by S.T. Sopris".; R7100200849</dc:description>
    <dc:publisher />
    <dc:contributor />
    <dc:date>[between 1930 and 1950]
</dc:date>
    <dc:type>Photographic prints.; Imaged.; Image</dc:type>
    <dc:format>1 photoprint ; 8 x 14 cm. (3 x 5 1/2 in.) mounted on album page  41 x 46 cm. (16 x 18 in.)
Photograph
</dc:format>
    <dc:identifier>X-20084
F46648 DPL
10020084.tif</dc:identifier>
    <dc:source />
    <dc:language />
    <dc:relation>C Photo Album 111.; C Photo Album 111. Parks and playgrounds.; C Photo Album 111. Parks and playgrounds, City Park.
Image File: ZZR710020084

http://photoswest.org/cgi-bin/imager?10020084+X-20084</dc:relation>
    <dc:coverage />
    <dc:rights>Restrictions applying to use or reproduction of this image available from the Western History/Genealogy Dept., Denver Public Library.</dc:rights>
  </rdf:Description>
        

To transform this Dublin Core RDF XML into BIBFRAME 2.0 Linked Data, a default RDF rule-set, kds-bibcat-dc-ingestion.ttl, is loaded with the DC-to-BIBFRAME triples.

RDF rules specific to this export from Denver Public Library, dpl-dc.ttl is also loaded by the ingester and applies rules and logic specific to this batch job.

bc:dc-description a kds:PropertyLinker ;
    kds:srcPropUri dc:description ;
    kds:destPropUri rdf:value ;
    kds:destClassUri rdf:Note ;
    kds:linkedRange bf:note ;
    kds:linkedClass bf:Instance .
        
bc:bf-Organization a kds:PropertyLinker;
    kds:destPropUri [ bf:heldBy  ] ;
    kds:destClassUri bf:Item .

bc:dc-description a kds:PropertyLinker ;
    kds:delimiterProp ";" ;
    kds:hasIndividualNodes "true" .
        

BIBFRAME 2.0 RDF Graphs

<http://cdm16079.contentdm.oclc.org:80/cdm/ref/collection/p15330coll22/id/24933> a bf:Item ;
    bf:generationProcess [ a bf:GenerationProcess ;
            bf:generationDate "2016-08-17T12:42:23.375547" ;
            rdf:value "Generated by BIBCAT version 1.1.0 from KnowledgeLinks.io"@en ] ;
    bf:heldBy <http://denverpubliclibrary.org/> ;
    bf:itemOf <http://bibcat.org/0a589978-6478-11e6-9af5-ac87a3129ce6> ;
    bf:usageAndAccessPolicy [ a bf:UsePolicy ;
            rdf:value "Restrictions applying to use or reproduction of this image available from the Western History/Genealogy Dept., Denver Public Library." ] .

<http://bibcat.org/0a589978-6478-11e6-9af5-ac87a3129ce6> a bf:Instance ;
    bf:generationProcess [ a bf:GenerationProcess ;
            bf:generationDate "2016-08-17T12:42:23.269246" ;
            rdf:value "Generated by BIBCAT version 1.1.0 from KnowledgeLinks.io"@en ] ;
    bf:identifiedBy [ a bf:Local ;
            rdf:value "10020084.tif" ],
        [ a bf:Local ;
            rdf:value "F46648 DPL" ],
        [ a bf:Local ;
            rdf:value "X-20084" ] ;
    bf:instanceOf [ a bf:Work ;
            bf:originDate "[between 1930 and 1950]" ] ;
    bf:layout [ a bf:Layout ;
            rdf:value """1 photoprint ; 8 x 14 cm. (3 x 5 1/2 in.) mounted on album page  41 x 46 cm. (16 x 18 in.)
Photograph""" ] ;
    bf:note [ a rdf:Note ;
            rdf:value "Album page 1 includes X-20083 to X-20090 on verso page 2 X-20091 to X-20099." ],
        [ a rdf:Note ;
            rdf:value "Title inked below photoprint." ],
        [ a rdf:Note ;
            rdf:value "R7100200849" ],
        [ a rdf:Note ;
            rdf:value "Photo edges are cropped." ],
        [ a rdf:Note ;
            rdf:value "Written above photo is \"2\", and below \"In memory of Elizabeth Allen Sopris a gift to Denver by S.T. Sopris\"." ],
        [ a rdf:Note ;
            rdf:value "Formerly F46648" ],
        [ a rdf:Note ;
            rdf:value """A view of the Sopris statue at City Park in Denver, Colorado. The statue is of a young boy that stands on a sundial. A cement bench surrounds the statue and a man made pool is below it. The City Park Pavilion is behind the statue.
Album is indexed.""" ] ;
    bf:partOf [ a pcdm:Collection ;
            rdfs:label """C Photo Album 111. Parks and playgrounds, City Park.
Image File: ZZR710020084

http://photoswest.org/cgi-bin/imager?10020084+X-20084""" ],
        [ a pcdm:Collection ;
            rdfs:label "C Photo Album 111. Parks and playgrounds." ],
        [ a pcdm:Collection ;
            rdfs:label "C Photo Album 111." ] ;
    bf:subject [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "Sculpture--Colorado--Denver--1930-1950." ],
        [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "Monuments & memorials--Colorado--Denver--1930-1950." ],
        [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "City Park (Denver, Colo.)--1930-1950." ],
        [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "Denver (Colo.)--1930-1950." ],
        [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "Sopris, Elizabeth Allen--Monuments." ] ;
    bf:title [ a bf:InstanceTitle ;
            bf:mainTitle "Sopris statue" ] .

    

History Colorado's CSV File

81.132.7,diorama,"view of hillside, with different routes dug out of the hill, for a long troff and a long pipe. Two men are cranking on either side of a well on the lower left edge of the diorama. Many other men are working with materials around the pipe. The background is a mountain scene, painted.",,Hydraulic Mining and A Spanish Arrastra,1,none,"Julius Ambrush, Works Project Administration, WPA",1933-1941,"W: 94 in, D: 32 in, H: 39 in","Mining, drilling, water, Well, Men, Ox",Denver (Colo.),Denver (Colo.),,,,,,,,Artifacts,,
84.128.34,photograph,"Photograph depicting the exterior and profile view of Longs Peak Inn in Estes Park, Colo. The cabin is made of logs and features a stone chimney and wooden staircase. There are tree trunks that extend through the porch roof and provide support for the structure. This cabin was owned by Enos Mills (1870-1922) a naturalist and a figure who was instrumental in establishing Rocky Mountain National Park. This photograph was shot by Fred Payne Clatworthy (1875-1953) circa 1904-1907, possibly before a fire that destroyed the structure in the summer 1906. A caption in the scrapbook compiled by Nelle Stevenson reads, ""Proprieter [sic] & famous dog trained to stamp out small forest blazes mistook dynamite fuse for one - was killed."" This note refers to Mills' dog Scotch.","Longs Peak Inn, Estes Park, Colo.",,1,"Printed on bottom of photo: ""310 LONGS PEAK INN ESTES PARK COLO, F. P. CLATWORTHY""  Handwritten in scrapbook underneath photo: ""Proprieter [sic] & famous dog trained to stamp out small forest blazes mistook dynamite fuse for one - was killed""","Clatworthy, Fred Payne, 1875-1953",1904-1907,,"Longs Peak Inn (Longs Peak, Colo.), Hotels--Colorado--Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park (Colo.)",,,,,,,,Nelle Stevenson collection,,Photographs,,
8
        

The CSV-to-BIBFRAME ingester does not have a general CSV rule-set because of the likelihood that each CSV metadata import will have different fields and formats. For History Colorado, all of the rules are located in the RDF Turtle file hist-co-csv.ttl.

bc:csv-MakerTerm a kds:PropertyLinker ;
    kds:srcPropKey "Maker.Term" ;
    kds:delimiterProp "," ;
    kds:hasIndividualNodes "true" ;
    kds:destClassUri bf:Agent ;
    kds:destPropUri schema:name ;
    kds:linkedRange relators:cre ;
    kds:linkedClass bf:Instance .

bc:csv-SubjectTerm a kds:PropertyLinker ;
    kds:srcPropKey "Subject.Term" ;
    kds:delimiterProp "," ;
    kds:hasIndividualNodes "true" ; 
    kds:destClassUri bf:Topic ;
    kds:destPropUri rdf:value ;
    kds:linkedRange bf:subject ;
    kds:linkedClass bf:Instance .
        

BIBFRAME 2.0 RDF Graphs

<http://bibcat.org/017562e2-647f-11e6-bec5-ac87a3129ce6> a bf:Item ;
    bf:generationProcess [ a bf:GenerationProcess ;
            bf:generationDate "2016-08-17T13:32:12.979922" ;
            rdf:value "Generated by BIBCAT version 1.1.0 from KnowledgeLinks.io"@en ] ;
    bf:heldBy <http://www.historycolorado.org/> ;
    bf:itemOf <http://bibcat.org/012a6170-647f-11e6-9d73-ac87a3129ce6> .

<http://bibcat.org/012a6170-647f-11e6-9d73-ac87a3129ce6> a bf:Instance ;
    bf:generationProcess [ a bf:GenerationProcess ;
            bf:generationDate "2016-08-17T13:32:12.947163" ;
            rdf:value "Generated by BIBCAT version 1.1.0 from KnowledgeLinks.io"@en ] ;
    bf:identifiedBy [ a bf:Local ;
            rdf:value "84.128.34" ] ;
    bf:instanceOf [ a bf:Work ;
            bf:temporalCoverage "1904-1907" ] ;
    bf:note [ a bf:Note ;
            rdfs:label "Photograph depicting the exterior and profile view of Longs Peak Inn in Estes Park, Colo. The cabin is made of logs and features a stone chimney and wooden staircase. There are tree trunks that extend through the porch roof and provide support for the structure. This cabin was owned by Enos Mills (1870-1922) a naturalist and a figure who was instrumental in establishing Rocky Mountain National Park. This photograph was shot by Fred Payne Clatworthy (1875-1953) circa 1904-1907, possibly before a fire that destroyed the structure in the summer 1906. A caption in the scrapbook compiled by Nelle Stevenson reads, \"Proprieter [sic] & famous dog trained to stamp out small forest blazes mistook dynamite fuse for one - was killed.\" This note refers to Mills' dog Scotch.",
                "Printed on bottom of photo: \"310 LONGS PEAK INN ESTES PARK COLO, F. P. CLATWORTHY\"  Handwritten in scrapbook underneath photo: \"Proprieter [sic] & famous dog trained to stamp out small forest blazes mistook dynamite fuse for one - was killed\"" ],
        [ a bf:Note ;
            rdfs:label "Photograph depicting the exterior and profile view of Longs Peak Inn in Estes Park, Colo. The cabin is made of logs and features a stone chimney and wooden staircase. There are tree trunks that extend through the porch roof and provide support for the structure. This cabin was owned by Enos Mills (1870-1922) a naturalist and a figure who was instrumental in establishing Rocky Mountain National Park. This photograph was shot by Fred Payne Clatworthy (1875-1953) circa 1904-1907, possibly before a fire that destroyed the structure in the summer 1906. A caption in the scrapbook compiled by Nelle Stevenson reads, \"Proprieter [sic] & famous dog trained to stamp out small forest blazes mistook dynamite fuse for one - was killed.\" This note refers to Mills' dog Scotch." ;
            bf:noteType "inscription"@en ],
        [ a bf:Note ;
            rdfs:label "Printed on bottom of photo: \"310 LONGS PEAK INN ESTES PARK COLO, F. P. CLATWORTHY\"  Handwritten in scrapbook underneath photo: \"Proprieter [sic] & famous dog trained to stamp out small forest blazes mistook dynamite fuse for one - was killed\"" ;
            bf:noteType "inscription"@en ] ;
    bf:partOf [ a pcdm:Collection ;
            rdfs:label "Nelle Stevenson collection" ] ;
    bf:subject [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "Colo.)" ],
        [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "Longs Peak Inn (Longs Peak" ],
        [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "Colo.)",
                "Estes Park (Colo.)",
                "Hotels--Colorado--Rocky Mountain National Park",
                "Longs Peak Inn (Longs Peak" ],
        [ a bf:Topic ;
            rdf:value "Hotels--Colorado--Rocky Mountain National Park" ] ;
    bf:title [ a bf:InstanceTitle ;
            bf:mainTitle "Longs Peak Inn, Estes Park, Colo." ] ;
    relators:cre <http://bibcat.org/f7403a9c-647c-11e6-94f5-ac87a3129ce6>,
        <http://bibcat.org/f747ca3e-647c-11e6-961f-ac87a3129ce6>,
        <http://bibcat.org/f74c38e2-647c-11e6-b21b-ac87a3129ce6> .

<http://bibcat.org/f7403a9c-647c-11e6-94f5-ac87a3129ce6> a bf:Agent ;
    schema:name "Fred Payne" .

<http://bibcat.org/f747ca3e-647c-11e6-961f-ac87a3129ce6> a bf:Agent ;
    schema:name "Clatworthy" .

<http://bibcat.org/f74c38e2-647c-11e6-b21b-ac87a3129ce6> a bf:Agent ;
    schema:name "1875-1953" .
        

Thanks!! Questions?

Big thanks to Craig Haggit, Leigh Jeremias, and the rest of DP.LA working groups for their assistance