The Library's Catalog

A Short History

1790s First "library" cards where used in French libraries on the back of playing cards.
1841 Sir Antonio Panizzi publishes 91 Rules for Standardizing the Cataloguing of Books for the British Museum (now Library).
1876 Melvil Dewey (of Dewey Decimal fame) Director of New York State Library founds the Library Bureau company that sells 3x5 catalog cards to fit new standardized to fit new card catalog cabinets
Charles Cutter publishes first edition of Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalogue that defines three objectives of a library catalog:
  1. Identifying (person can find a book by author, title, subject, and date of publication)
  2. Collocating (show what books a library has by a given author, subject, and kind of literature)
  3. Evaluating (book edition and its character)
1901 Library of Congress starts selling author, title, and subject cards for purchase by libraries
1960s MARC format for bibliographic electronic records for exchanging collection information between libraries created at the Library of Congress by Henriette Avram
1980s Development of first Integrated Library Systems (ILS) accessed through dedicated terminals
1994 Amazon founded as a primary online book-store, website hugely influential in people's User Interface expectations for finding books online
1998 Google Inc. founded in Menlo Park libraries will never be the same!
2000s Library Vendors and Open Source "Discovery Layers" provide Amazon and Google "like" search technologies that link to legacy ILS systems in libraries
2010s Mobile Apps and interfaces to Libraries Catalog becoming more popular and necessary for libraries.

Sources: History of the Card Catalog, Library Catalog

Legacy Data Formats >>