http://intro2libsys.info/ccc-forum-2015

Now What?

A Library Linked-Data How-to for your digital audio objects.

by Jeremy Nelson and Ximena Buller Machado
Colorado College

The Library of Congress MARC21 replacement called BIBFRAME is a linked data vocabulary along with other ontologies like Schema.org. This presentation will demonstrate a few projects that use digital audio objects using an open-source project called the semantic server, created and actively developed by Jeremy Nelson, for a pilot BIBFRAME catalog called Bibcat being developed under contract with the Library and Congress and for Colorado College's Music Library Reserves. Finally, you'll receive more information about using these technologies for your institution.

Presentation

Now that you have your digital audio files, either born-digital or digitalized from analog sources, is just the first step to providing long-term access and preservation of your valuable digital asset. The popular open-source digital repository platform Fedora Commons, used extensively by such institutions as Stanford and Columbia Universities and the Smithsonian, recently released a new version that besides providing for the preservation of your audio digital object now offers a much more flexible and richer method of describing your object for long-term access by implementing a technology called linked data.


Fedora Commons

Fedora Commons is a widely supported open-source digital repository platform that started as a project from MIT but now is managed and sponsored by the non-profit Duraspace Foundation that also sponsors the other popular open-source digital repository DSpace.

Other Options

What are the other choices for preservation and access for your digital audio objects?

Commercial Products

Open-Source Projects

BAD! You can always fall-back to the time-honored but risky and unsafe method storing your audio files on a shared hard-drive.

BETTER! use a cloud drive such as Google Drive, Amazon's Glacier, Dropbox, or Microsoft Azure to store your digital objects.


Semantic Server

https://github.com/jermnelson/semantic-server

The Semantic Server is an open-source REST API wrapper that for managing RDF entities stored as subject graphs. The current iteration uses Fedora 4 as a subject linked-data store and binary preservation store while providing expanded and enriched search of these RDF entities through Elastic Search supported by an HTTP SPARQL endpoint using Blazegraph.

Fedora 4

In the semantic server, Fedora 4 is run as a webapp under Tomcat

Blazegraph

Blazegraph is an open-source (with commercial support options), ultra-scalable, high-performance graph database with support for the Blueprints and RDF/SPARQL APIs.

Semantic Server API

The Semantic Server is an open-source REST API wrapper that for managing RDF entities stored as subject graphs.

Quick & Flexible Hosting with Docker


Introduction to Library Linked Data

Library Linked Data is part of the larger Semantic Web, an international effort to bring machine-readable data to the web. Library Linked Data is based on a RDF (Resource Description Framework) graphs made up a series of statements, called triples, that take the form subject - predicate - object

What is a graph?

"...graph is a collection of nodes and the edges between them. Graphs are useful abstractions for describing transit networks, computer networks, and relationships among people (such as in a social network)" Chris Mueller (source)


Freddie Blevins Oral History

To describe the Freddie Blevins oral history from Colorado College's collection of interviews with women from the Western Slope, a simple RDF metadata graph of this audio object is presented at the right. https://digitalcc.coloradocollege.edu/islandora/object/coccc:2478 at this IRI (International Resource Identifier). IRIs identifies a resource with URLs being the most common form of an IRI.

RDF Graph in Turtle Format

@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix schema: <http://schema.org/> .
@prefix xml: <http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

<https://digitalcc.coloradocollege.edu/islandora/object/coccc:2478> a schema:AudioObject ;
    schema:creator [ a schema:Person ;
            schema:givenName "Freddie" ;
            schema:name "Freddie White Blevins" ] ;
    schema:dateCreated "1984-09-27" ;
    schema:duration "01:40:00" ;
    schema:familyName "Blevins" .

Subjects

A subject resource can be:
  • IRI
  • Blank Node

Predicates

A relationship between the subject and object is called a property.

A predicate must be an IRI.

Objects

An object resource can be
  • IRI
  • Blank Node
  • Literal

BIBFRAME Audio

The Library of Congress MARC21 replacement is BIBFRAME, a linked-data vocabulary for describing bibliographic information for physical and digital objects. BIBFRAME contains a type of audio creative Work with specific predicates and suggest values for objects for describing digital sound within a bibliographic context.

Warning Rant & Opinion!

Libraries, Museums, and Memory Institutions MUST become the trusted authoritative source of their RDF metadata graphs! Moving into a publisher role - like describing your audio objects to insure long-term durability and access - is becoming easier with cloud services. The vision of the Semantic Server is enabling the convergence of the traditional ILS/Discovery Layer/etc., digital repository, and institutional knowledge management systems into a dynamic and evolving catalog for institutions that persists and grows over decades.

Audio Work

http://bibframe.org/vocab/Audio

Electronic Instance

http://bibframe.org/vocab/Electronic

Authorities & Annotations

http://bibframe.org/vocab/Person

http://bibframe.org/vocab/Organization


What is schema.org?

Schema.org is a collaborative, community activity with a mission to create, maintain, and promote schemas for structured data on the Internet, on web pages, in email messages, and beyond.

Schema.org Vocabulary

Schema.org is a linked-data vocabulary comes out of a collaboration between technology companies (Google, Microsoft, Yandex) to describe "things" on the web.

Schema.org Audio Classes


Colorado College Music Library Reserves

To organize our application we created classes and their properties using Schema.org. This makes it easy for our staff to control and organize playlists and upload them to the College's learning management system "Canvas".

  • We created and added unit tests
  • In order to reduce any copyright issues, the website requires an ID number and password for only the enrolled students in the specific music course. No one else is allowed access to the Mp3 recordings and even once the student is no longer enrolled in the class, they won't have access to the playlists anymore.
  • This update will greatly benefit music students at Colorado College by
    • More direct and easy access to a specific playlists and songs
    • Allowing multiple people to use the a playlist at the same time.
    • Streaming mp3 audio files for their course anywhere on campus
    • Prevents copyright infringement
This application will greatly benefit music students at Colorado College by
  • More direct and easy access to a specific playlists and songs
  • Allowing multiple people to use the a playlist at the same time.
  • Streaming mp3 audio files for their course anywhere on campus
  • Prevents copyright infringement

We used the following classes:

  • AudioObject
  • MusicPlaylist
  • MusicRecording
  • Music Group
  • Person

Properties in each class include but are not limited to:

  • Creator
  • Type

BIBCAT

In the fall of 2014, Aaron Schmidt of Influx Library User Interface Design and I were awarded a contract with the Library of Congress for a BIBFRAME Search and Display Systems that resulted in BIBCAT - a BIBFRAME Catalog - a lightweight catalog web application that uses the backend BIBFRAME Datastore. Check out the current pilot that is loaded with sample datasets from the Library of Congress (original records were generated from MARC records related to the subjects, "Mark Twain" and "Bible") at bibcat.org.



Copyright © 2015 by Jeremy Nelson under CC Attribution 4 license with source code licensed under the GPLv3 and available on Github.